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Full text of "TRS-80 Microcomputer News - Volume 3 Issue 01 (1981-01)(Radio Shack)(US)"

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THE MICROCOMPUTER NEWSLETTER PUBLISHED FOR TRS-80 OWNERS 



Volume 3, Issue 1 



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55« 



Happy New Year! This is the first 
issue of a New Year, with a new internal 
format and we are really looking forward 
to the exciting products of 1981. 



The following letter is being sent to 
all known owners of the QUME 26-1157 
Daisy Wheel Printer. 

This recall notice applies only if your 
printer is a QUME. 

Your printer is a Qume if the docu- 
mentation says Qume all over it. Also, the 
printer will not have the standard Radio 
Shack color scheme or labels. The Qume 
is the printer we substituted for the origi- 
nal WP-50 (26-1157). 



Do not use the printer again until you 
have had the printer repaired. If your 
printer is not a Qume, you may disregard 
this notice. 



WARNING 

An inadvertent wiring error in the AC 
input circuit of the Qume's 115 VAC 
Switching Power Supply could present a 
safety hazard. As a result of this error, a 

Continued on Page 15 



ITS OFFICLf 
BANKING W 




KNOXVILLE, Tenn., Oct. 9 — Electronic NEWS! 

home banking became a reality in Knox- __ _ m _ m 

ville, Tenn. on Oct. 9. For the first time, MM I j 

consumers are able to use the services of 

their local bank with a computer at home. BRUCE Bio-rhythms 3 

Such a program was announced in Knox- Bugs, Errors, Fixes, Etc. 

ville and it is expected to be available Model I/Ill 

nationwide in 1981. 26-1555 Acct. Rec 13 

The "Express Information" bank-at- 26-1558 Bus Mailing L 13 

home service is a joint venture of United 26-1565 Microfiles ..'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.['.[ 14 

American Service Corporation (UASC); 26-1604 Versatile 14 

Radio Shack, a division of Tandy Corpo- 2 a'ui° 5 Mv ' Stat Anal 14 

!?? n o^ P??^^: ? Subsidia *Y Of ° 26 e 4502 Inv. Management 14 

H & R Block. The United American Bank 26-4503 Payroll 14 

in Knoxville was selected as the first bank 26-4505 Accts. Payable 15 

to use and market the service to its „ 26-4506 Mailing List 15 

rn , tnmprc; Computer Home Banking 1 

customers. Computer Services 16 

For an estimated price of $15 to $25 Fort Worth Scene l 

a month, 400 of the bank's customers will Julian Date Computer 3 

gain services of Radio Shack's new TRS- Jj^j Jf^S* 2 

80 Color Computer, including a standard ° e ^p^idi ." " ' 16 

keyboard, which plugs into the CUS- Name Finder .....'.. . , , . . .' ' ' . 16 

tomer's own television set and telephone. Note to Printer Users 2, 

Customers will have access to a compre- D rin ] e ^ ctor L n 3 

, , r. ■ , i ■ Product Line Manager Pages 

hensrve news and financial advisory ser- Color Computer . 9 

vice, be able to pay most of their bills, Education '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.". li 

receive current information on their Model I/Model III 7 

checking accounts, use a sophisticated p^ herai a 

bookkeeping service, and apply for loans. PcXtTomputer ". '.'. '.'. '. .' ['. '. '. '. [ [ .'.'.'.'.'. [ 10 

This opens a new dimension in conve- Reduce Fractions 2 

nience banking. Roman Numeral Conv 4 

Continued on Page 2 View From the 7th Floor 5 

Retail Prices in this newsletter may vary at individual stores and dealers, ■i 
The company cannot be liable for pictorial and typographical inaccuracies, i 



•The biggest name In little computers 1 — 



i-. — -' '.'■■ ■■y- . 



Home Banking (From p age i > 

These services are being offered to 
customers in Eastern Tennessee in 
phases. "We are releasing these pro- 
grammed services in phases to allow our 
customers adequate opportunities to 
familiarize themselves with in-home 
computer use," Thomas E. Sudman, 
UASC President, explains. "As their exper- 
tise and needs increase, the sophistication 
of the information services increase." 

The first phase includes a news and 
information network developed by 
CompuServe of Columbus, Ohio. 
CompuServe President Jeff Wilkins says 
customers can choose information from 
a "shopping list" of national, international 
and financial news, including the latest 
stock quotation and commodities infor- 
mation. United American Bank will add to 
this system their bank news and daily 
information on savings and deposit rates. 

The remaining phases include two- 
way communications with the bank for 
bill paying, bookkeeping, tax services, 
and electronic mail, giving customers the 
opportunity to communicate messages to 
each other through the system. 

Customers of the bank are issued a 
security pack and a certificate which can 
be redeemed at any of the 6,000 Radio 
Shack outlets nationwide. Without directly 
purchasing the computer, customers will 
be able to use it for a number of other 
functions: entertainment, education, 
home security, message services and 
electronic filing, to name a few. 

"The TRS-80 Color Computer was 
selected because of its high quality color 
graphics ," John V. Roach, President, Tandy 
Corporation, said. "It also gives the cus- 
tomer a full BASIC language computer 
and the opportunity to write his own pro- 
gram in addition to its banking and infor- 
mation services." 

A commitment to in-home banking 
was expressed by Jake F. Butcher, Chair- 
man, President and Chief Executive Offi- 
cer of United American Bank: 

"We are delighted to be chosen as 
the first bank in the country to offer these 
computer services. Our desire is to offer 
our customers the most sophisticated ser- 
vice possible. The technology is there, our 
reports indicate that customer demand is 
there and we are ready to be the first bank 
to offer what they have been asking for 
— convenience banking without leaving 
home." 

Important Notice to 
Model II Users: 

We have discovered that some 



recent shipments of 8-inch diskettes were 
defective. Disk errors and failure will typi- 
cally occur after either extended storage, 
or use of the diskette for about five hours. 
These failures are often diagnosed as 
hardware trouble. The defective diskettes 
can be identified by a five-digit alphabetic 
code on the diskette jacket. If the first 
three letters conespond to one of those 
listed below, the diskette is probably 
defective and should be replaced. 

Defective codes are any five-letter 
codes, beginning with the following three 
letters: 

HBL- HZA- HZE- HZF- JXS-- 

JXM-- JXN-- JYL-- JZA- JZB- 

KYD- KYU- KZT- LAB- LAC-- 

LAE- LAF- LAG- MAN- NAE-- 

PAF- PAG- QAK- 

If you have any diskettes with these 
codes, make a BACK-UP copy of any 
information which is on the diskette and 
return the diskette to your local Radio 
Shack dealer or store. The stores and 
dealers have been provided with infor- 
mation about replacing these defective 
diskettes for you. 

Reduce Fractions 

This program for reducing fractions 
was supplied by 13 year old Arthur Sci- 
alabba of Danbury, Ct. 

10 CLS 

20 'BY ARTHUR SCIALABBA 

30 'DANBURY* CT* 

40 INPUT"WHAT IS THE 

FRACTION (A/B=A f B)"? 
A * B 
50 IF A>B THEN 70 
G0 FOR >( = 2 TO Bs GOTO 80 
70 FOR X = 2 TO A 
80 IF A/XOINT(A/X) 

THEN 1G0 
90 IF B/XOINT(B/X) 
THEN 180 
100 A=A/X 
110 B=B/X 
120 GOTO 50 
130 PR I NT "FRACTION REDUCED 

TO =" ? A? "/" i B 
140 INPUT "DO YOU WANT 

ANOTHER 1 )YES 2) NO" 5 

150 ON Z GOTO 10 1 180 

180 NEXT X 

170 GOTO 130 

180 END 

For this program, input your frac- 
tions as numerator, comma, denomina- 
tor. This program does a very good job of 
reducing fractions fairly quickly 



Important Notice to 
Model I/III 
Applications 
Programmers 

If you are writing programs (of any 
type) for the TRS-80 Models I and III, and 
you want a single program to be able to 
load and operate in either machine, here 
is a tip from Radio Shack System Soft- 
ware Group that may help: 

Memory location 0125 Hex will 
"always" equal 49H in a Model III, and 
"never" equal 49H in a Model I. 

As you are aware, there ARE differ- 
ences between Models I and III, and it is 
sometimes necessary to write a particular 
routine just a little differently for each 
machine. By PEEKing location 01 25H, 
your program can know which machine 
it is operating in, and set an appropriate 
flag. This will allow a single program with 
routines for both the Model I and III to 
operate correctly without your having to 
ask the operator what type machine is 
being used. 

A Note to Line Printer 
VI Users: 

Radio Shack's new Line Printer VI 
(26-1166 $1160) has graphics capabilities! 
With this new feature, unfortunately also 
comes a new "problem." Graphics char- 
acters place a heavier "load" on the print 
head than do text characters. If you print 
too many graphics characters without 
pausing, the print head could overheat, 
causing the fuse to blow. 

When you must print graphics con- 
tinuously, you must pause for at least one 
minute after each l/6th page is printed 
(this assumes a 15"xll" page). This pause 
will prevent the unit from overheating. 

Note: In terms of "load" on the print 
head, the underline character falls into the 
graphics category, and should be treated 
accordingly 







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Radio JhacK"—-Tfae biggest name In little computers"' 



rime Factors of Third 
degree Equations 



The following program (with slight 
modifications to the print routines by us) 
was sent in by William Myers of Port 
Huron, Mich. The program will supply 
approximate values for the real roots of 
third degree equations (equations of the 
form— A*X^3 + B*X^2 + C*X + D). 



M FIND REAL ROOTS 

A THIRD DEGREE 
UATION. 
PUT"THE 
EFFICIENTS ARE" 5 

S 

INT@0,"THE EQUATION 

U WANT TO FACTOR 

" i J ; "*X-a*3+" 5 K ? 

X^2+" ? L 5 "#>(+" ?M 5 

10*01 

R A =2000 TO 1 

EP -1 

INT@G4> "#70; "5 GU 5 

INT@128 f "" i 

s : : " > A* "COEFF:" 

" : " K " : " L " s " M 5 

E-,01 

CINKE*100)/100 

=E*J+K 

=GH*E+L 

=GT*E+M 
GU>,1 THEN 130 
GLK-.l THEN 130 

N+l 

INT@128+N*64 ,"THE 

CTORS ARE" 5 E 5 

R B=l TO 1500s 

XT B 

XT A 

M THE FACTORS ARE 

' AND THEIR 

ECISION IS SET IN 

NES 140 AND 150 

TO 210 



This program begins looking for 
roots at E= 10.01. If this is not high 
enough, change the value of E in line 50. 
The precision of the answer is controlled 
by the decimal in lines 140 and 150. Each 
third degree (Cubic) equation will have 
three roots. Of these, two may be "imag- 
inary" and not revealed by this program. 
If you get more than three values, or if the 
values are very close together you may 
wish to increase the precision by changing 
the value in lines 140 and 150 to .001 or 
even .00001. 



10 


RE 




OF 




EQ 


20 


IN 




CO 




J * 


30 


CL 


40 


PR 




Y0 




IS 




" # 


50 


E = 


S0 


F0 




ST 


70 


PR 


80 


PR 




"8 




J 


30 


E = 


100 


E = 


110 


GH 


120 


GT 


130 


GU 


140 


IF 


150 


IF 


1G0 


N = 


170 


PR 




FA 


180 


F0 




NE 


130 


NE 


200 


RE 




■'E 




PR 




LI 


210 


GO 



Biological Rhythms 
Ultimate Computer 
Encounter 
(B.R.U.C.E.) 

B.R.U.C.E. was provided by Bruce 
Dewees of Jacksonville, Fl. If you happen 
to have a subroutine which inputs two 
dates and calculates the number of days 
between two the dates, DELETE line 30 
and change line 40 to: 

40 G0SUB 1000 

Then insert your subroutine begin- 
ning at line 1000. (See the Julian Date 
Computer in this issue.) 

This program was written for a 4K 
Level II Model I. 

10 PR INT "BIO-RHYTHMS FOR 

ONE " 5 
20 PR I NT "CYCLE OF 33 
DAYS" 

PRINT"ENTER THE 
NUMBER OF " 5 
INPUT"DAYS SINCE 
BIRTH" 5B 
PRINT TAB(5) t 
"PHYSICAL" t 
PR I NT "EMOTIONAL" t 
"INTELLECTUAL" 
FOR D=B TO B+33 
IF D-B=ll THEN GOTO 
130 ELSE IF D-B=21 
THEN GOTO 130 
ELSE GOTO 120 
PRINT TAB(5) » 
"PHYSICAL" t 
PRINT "EMOTIONAL" » 

"INTELLECTUAL" 

D-B! 

TAB(5) t 

SIN( ,0174533* 
!3) t 

174533* 



30 



40 



50 



G0 



30 

100 
110 
120 
130 
140 

150 

1G0 

170 
180 
130 



210 
220 
230 
240 



260 



:70 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

360*D/: 

PRINT SIN( 

3G0*D/28) t 

PRINT SIN( ,0174533* 

3G0*D/33) 

NEXT D 

GOTO 220 

FOR T=l TO 1500s 

NEXT T 

GOTO 30 

CLS 

FOR W=23 TO 34 STEP 5 

PRINT0512* "0"? 

STRING$( 18 >"-" ) ! 

PRINT "10"? 

STRING$( 13 »"-" ) 5 

PRINT "20"? 

STRING* (21 t "-" ) 5 

FOR D=B TO B+33 

Y=1+SIN( ,0174533* 

3G0*D/W) 



230 SET( (D-B)*127 /33 » 

47-23 ,5*Y) 
300 NEXT D f W 
310 GOTO 310 

Julian Date Computer 

This program was supplied by Dona 
Erb of Pearland, Tx. for the Model II or a 
Model I with disk drives. Ms. Erb indicates 
that the original algorithm came from 
UNIVAC/CYBER. We have modified it to 
work with a 16K Level II Model I and the 
B.R.U.C.E. program listed elsewhere in 
this Newsletter. 



100! 

101 



103! 
104! 
105! 
10G! 
107! 



108! 
103! 



1100 



DEF 
DEF 
FOR 
INP 
DAT 
IM( 
J(N 
INT 
+ 48 
-14 
INT 
FIX 
/12 
INT 
IY( 
IM( 
/10 
NEX 
B = A 
RET 
FOR 
PR I 
FOR 
ID( 
"IS 
NEX 
PR I 
BET 
IS" 
END 



INT I 
DBL J 

N=l TO 2 
UT"ENTER 
E(MM »DD »YYYY> " i 
N ) * I D ( N ) » I Y ( N ) 
)=ID(N)- 32075+ 
( 1461* ( IY(N) 
00+ FIX( ( IM(N) 
)/12) )/4)+ 
(367*( IM(N)-2- 
( ( IM(N)-14) 
) * 1 2 ) / 1 2 ) - 
(3*INT( INK ( 
N)+4300+FIX( ( 
N)-14)/12) ) 
) / 4 ) ) 
T N 

BS( J(2)-J( 1 ) ) 
URN 

N=l TO 2 
NT"JULIAN DATE 
" I M ( N ) ? " / " 5 
N ) ! " / " 5 I Y ( N ) 5 
"5 J ( N ) 
T N 

NT "NUMBER OF DAYS 
WEEN THE DATES 



Be sure that you enter line 1020 very 
carefully, there are a lot of parenthesis in 
there! If you are using this as a subroutine 
for the Bio-rhythm program, DELETE 
lines 1060-1 100. If you are using this as a 
stand-alone program, DELETE line 1050. 




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Leral Conversions 






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Everyone should have at least one Roman Numeral Con- 
version program in their library. This program is one of the neat- 
est that we have seen and we finally had the room to pass it 
along to you. Even if you don't convert roman numerals every 
day, you may want to study the use of strings and string handling 
in this program. The technique might be useful if you ever have 
to convert arabic numerals to decimal! 

10 REM * ROMAN NUMERAL /DEC I MAL NUMBER 

CONVERSION PROGRAM * 
20 REM *** WRITTEN BY: ROBIN EDWARDS 

30 REM ***** ***** 

40 CLEAR 200s DIM C$(15)» D(1G)» 

50 PR I NT "FOR ROMAN NUMERAL TO DECIMAL 

CONVERSION t ENTER 'ROM'" 
60 PR I NT "FOR DECIMAL TO ROMAN NUMERAL 

CONVERSION t ENTER 'DEC'" 
70 PRINT"T0 END PROGRAM* ENTER 'END'" 
80 INPUT Z$ 

90 IF Z$="R0M" THEN 130 
100 IF Z$="DEC" THEN 380 
110 IF Z$="END" THEN 730 
120 PR I NT "INVALID RESPONSE* PLEASE RE- 

KEY. " : GOTO 80 
130 PRINT"INPUT ROMAN NUMERAL EX.: 

MCMLXXX " 
140 PR I NT "TO END PROGRAM t ENTER 'END'": 

INPUT A$ 
150 IF A$="END" THEN 50 
160 A=0 
170 B=LEN(A$) 

180 FOR 1=1 TO 15: C$CI)=" ": NEXT I 
180 FOR 1=1 to 16: D(I)=0: NEXT I 
200 FOR 1 = 1 TO B: C$ ( I 5 =MI D$ ( A$ » I ? 1 ) : 

NEXT I 
210 FOR 1=1 TO B 
220 IF C$(I)="M" THEN D(I)=1000: 

GOTO 300 
230 IF C$(I)="D" THEN DCI)=500: 

GOTO 300 
240 IF C$CI5="C" THEN D(I)=100: 

GOTO 300 
250 IF C$(I)="L" THEN D(I5=50: GOTO 300 
260 IF C$CI)="X" THEN DC I) = 10: GOTO 300 
270 IF C*(I)="V" THEN D(I)=50 GOTO 300 
280 IF C$(I)="I" THEN D(I)=1: GOTO 300 
290 PR I NT "BAD INPUT " ;C$(I)5" NOT 

ACCEPTED": GOTO 130 
300 NEXT I 
310 FOR 1=1 TO B 
320 IF D ( I ) > D ( 1 + 1 ) THEN A = A + D(I): 

GOTO 350 
330 IF D(IXD(I + 1) THEN A=A-D(I): 

GOTO 350 
340 A=A+D(I) 
350 NEXT I 
360 PRINT"ROMAN NUMERAL IS "?A$? " 

DECIMAL NUMBER IS " 5 A 
370 GOTO 130 
380 PRINT" INPUT DECIMAL NUMBER EX.: 

1380" 

4 



330 

400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 

490 

500 

510 
520 

530 

540 

550 

560 
570 
580 

530 

600 

610 

620 

630 

640 

650 

660 

670 

680 

680 



7H 



720 
730 



PR I NT "TO END PROGRAM* ENTER 'END' 
INPUT A$ 

IF A$="END" THEN 50 

B=LEN( A$5 : Y=0 

FOR 1 = 1 TO 4: E$( I > = "" : NEXT I 

FOR I = 1 TO 4 : F$ ( I ) = " " : NEXT I 

IF B=4 THEN R=l: GOTO 490 

IF B=3 THEN R=2: GOTO 490 

IF B=2 THEN R=3: GOTO 490 

IF B=l THEN R=4: GOTO 490 

PRINT"NUMBER " ;A*5" OUT OF RANGE" 

GOTO 380 

FOR I=R TO 4: Y=Y+1: 

F$( I )=MID$(A$ »Y»1 ) : NEXT I 

J$="C": K$="CC": L$="CCC": M$="CD 

N$="D" : 0$="DC" : P$="DCC": 

Q$="DCCC": R$="CM" 

IF F$(1)="0" THEN 560 

IF F$( 1 5 = "1" THEN E$( 1 ) 

GOTO 560 

IF F$(i)="2" 

GOTO 560 

IF F$(l)="3" 

GOTO 560 

PR I NT "NUMBER 

TRY AGAIN.": 

FOR 1=2 TO 4 

IF F$(I5="0" 

IF F$(I)="1" 

GOTO 680 

IF F$( I )="2" 

GOTO 680 

IF F$(I)="3" 

GOTO 680 

IF F$( I ) = "4" THEN E$( I )=M$: 

GOTO 680 

IF F$( I )="5" THEN E$( I )=N$: 

GOTO 680 

IF F$( I )="6" THEN E$( I )=0$: 

GOTO 680 

IF F$( I )="7" THEN E$( I )=P$: 

GOTO 680 

IF F$( I )="8" THEN E$( I )=Q$: 

GOTO 680 

IF F$( I )="9" THEN E$( I )=R$: 

GOTO 680 

PR I NT "THE DIGIT " 3 F* ( I ) 5 " IS NOT 

VALID.": GOTO 380 

IF 1=2 THEN J$="X": K$="XX": 

L$="XXX": M$="XL": N$="L": 0$="LX 

P$="LXX": Q$="LXXX"s R$="XC": 

GOTO 700 

IF 1=3 THEN J$="I": K$="H": 

L$="IH": M$="IV": N$="V": 0$="VI 

P$="VH" : Q$="VIH": R$="IX": 

GOTO 700 

NEXT I 

PR I NT "DEC I MAL NUMBER IS "?A$? " 

ROMAN NUMERAL IS " !E$(l)i E$(2)5 

E$(3) 5 E$(4) 

GOTO 380 

END 



M" : 

THEN E$( 1 )="MM" : 

THEN E$( 1 ) ="MMM" : 

" ?A$? " IS TOO LARGE. 
GOTO 380 

THEN 680 

THEN E$( I )=J$: 

THEN E$(I)=K$: 

THEN E$( I 5=L$: 



i '---- ■•- . '■ - ■.-■I 




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«Mii«lMira«^^ 



by Jon Shirley, Vice President Computer Division 



^JkdfeMjasf-38^^ 1 ^ 



I am writing this in November after 
we have elected our new President and as 
you read it we are in a new year. Both rep- 
resent new opportunities and while I will 
not get into politics (that's Mr. Komfeld's 
domain), I will crystal ball gaze a little for 
you about our product line. 
Disk for Color Computer 

As our Catalog says, the Color Com- 
puter will get a disk system during 1981, 
probably about mid-year. It will not turn 
the Color Computer into a small business 
accounting machine but it will provide a 
way to get really creative with graphics. 
Those of you patient Color Computer cus- 
tomers who want the Extended BASIC 
(and once you see it you won't be able to 
live without it) will find it available by the 
15th of this month. 
Model II Survey 

Will the Model II get any new hard- 
ware??? We are in the middle of tabulat- 
ing a survey of Model II customers and 
we will bring out some of the most 
requested items. A hard disk is a good 
possibility. All you Mod II owners who 
responded to our survey, thanks very- 
much, we value your input and we will 
make some changes thanks to your help. 
Model I 

During November we had our 
annual shareholders meeting and it was 
announced that manufacturing of the 
Model I computer would stop prior to the 
end of 1980. The decision came about for 
a number of reasons, but one of the main 
ones was that to meet the new FCC reg- 
ulations we would have had to redesign 
the entire product, case and all. The effect 
of such a redesign would have been to 
make the cost of the Model I as much as 
the Model III, which did not make much 
sense considering the many new features 
of the Model III. As I write this (remember, 
it's November) there are still a lot of Model 
Is in our stores, although they will be 
scarce by January. 

So, where does this leave you Model 
I owners? Still fully supported as all we 
have dropped is the Model I CPU. We are 
still making expansion interfaces, all 
upgrade kits, disk drives, etc. and we will 
continue to make them as long as there is 
a demand. We will not only continue 
almost all Model I software, but we have 
new Model I software in development 
that will increase the utility of your com- 
puter. It was not easy to decide to stop 
making the most successful product in 



Radio Shack's history, but I want to assure 
you that we value all you Model I owners 
and we will continue to offer all the sup- 
port you need. 

Will there be any new Model I hard- 
ware? Yes there will. Look for a neat, 
cheap modem very soon that will work 
with all our computers but has an extra for 
you Mod I owners. And there are a couple 
of other goodies in the works that will be 
out soon. 
Printers? 

One new one makes its debut this 
month, the Line Printer V. 160 characters 
per second and only $1860! 

One thing that is sure in the com- 
puter business, outside of Murphy's Law, 
is that the technology is ever marching 
forward to bring out better, and some- 
times cheaper, computers and peripher- 
als. Of course you can always wait for the 
latest and best and in so doing wait for- 
ever and never take advantage of the 
computing power available today 

Software 

Of course there will be more soft- 
ware for all our computers. Right now 
there are over 80 new programs in devel- 
opment. Radio Shack software has come 
a long way in the last three and one half 
years since Blackjack and if you have not 
looked at our selection lately you should 
— you just might get a nice surprise. 

CPM 

Will we bring out CP/M for any of our 
computers? No we won't. It's not just 
pride of authorship and the fact that 
TRSDOS is a much better users system 
with better documentation but the fact 
that there is no CP/M. There are at least 
four of them and they are NOT compati- 
ble. The applications program you buy 
on Brand Y CP/M will not run on Brand X 
CP/M. Even the disk sector sizes are not 
the same. Of course there is a lot of CP/M 
based software out there, and everyone 
has a Model II version, so there is really 
little reason for us to attempt to support 
two different operating systems. 
Software Sourcebook 

Speaking of software, the new 
expanded Software Sourcebook is now 
available and has over 1,600 listings! W 5 . 
did raise the price to $1.95 but it's still an 
incredible buy Keep those listings com- 
ing in. 

Model II TRSDOS 2.0 

In this issue of the Newsletter there is 
a section on the Model II TRSDOS 2.0 and 



how to keep your data intact. 
Data Processing Basics 

Good data processing practices are 
not followed by a lot of users and by a lot 
of programmers. Let's review a few basics 
that every computer user should know. 

1 . When you start using a new pro- 
gram that replaces either an old program 
or a manual system you should run both 
together for as long as needed to be sure 
the program is working correctly With 
most accounting software two to three 
months should be enough but when you 
end the third month do a test year end 
close to be sure all the program is working 
conectly 

2. Make BACKUPS! How many, 
how often? This depends on how valu- 
able the information is and also how diffi- 
cult it would be to re-enter the information 
if you did lose it. In business applications 
you should probably back up a minimum 
of every day and if you are running a pro- 
gram that gets data entry all day you 
should back up every few hours. Disk- 
ettes are really cheap and reuseable com- 
pared to several hours of data entry. Hint 
— before you reuse a diskette, use a bulk 
eraser to wipe it clean and re-format it. 
This will insure that any flawed tracks are 
found. Also when you first use a diskette, 
date it. Diskettes do wear out. File them in 
a cool place, upright position and handle 
them carefully. Most diskette failures are 
not from wear but from poor handling. 

3. If you are a programmer or have 
hired one, good data practice states that 
you never put the user in the position of 
changing a diskette without the screen 
telling him to do so or that the program 
has ended. We have had a lot of people 
complain about the lack of activity lights 
on the Mod II expansion bay (for which 
we are sorry, but that drive is made by the 
second largest manufacturer of drives and 
they have never used lights). It's not the 
lack of activity lights that cause problems, 
it's bad programming. A lot goes into 
making a program "bullet proof and we 
spend more time testing software than 
we do writing it. If you do use an outside 
programmer be sure he tests it, not you. 

4. Of course there are a lot of other 
good rules to follow, like extensive error 
trapping, not leaving files open for long 
periods of time etc., etc. and we hope to 
have a book available on the subject of 
good programming in the near future. 

Until next month. 







Last month I told you a bit about 
PROFILE II. This month I'd like to back up 
a little and cover something that is univer- 
sal to the Model II— TRSDOS. More spe- 
cifically, I'll cover our new Version 2.0, 
some of it's advantages and a few (hope- 
fully) of the reasons that we did things the 
way we did. 

TRSDOS Compatability 

One question that is in everyone's 
mind is ". . . why isn't Version 2.0 compar- 
able with Version 1.2?". Primary empha- 
sis on Version 2.0 was to facilitate error 
recovery thru the addition of certain 
enhancements. For one, an "Alternate 
Directory" is present on all FACTORY 
Version 2.0 diskettes. This required a spe- 
cific re-allocation of the disk area which 
isn't a simple change. The layout of the 
directory was also changed to make the 
system more reliable in a user 
environment. 

Alternate Directory and Verify 

It is possible to create a system disk- 
ette without the alternate directory by 
specifying during the FORMAT: FORMAT 
: d {ALT = 00>. For a little more speed, 
you may also specify VERIFY DETECT 
OFF, but this should be done with care. 
Realize that you are gaining a little speed 
on program and data access but you are 
giving up your chance for recovery of a 
lost directory, you are not re-reading or 
'verifying' what is being written to the disk, 
and you are not checking the ID of the 
disk before writing to it. For these rea- 
sons, we do not recommend deleting the 
alternate directory or turning VERIFY 
DETECT off. 

Library Commands 

There are 13 new library commands: 

• ANALYZE will give a track-by-track lay- 
out of the programs on the disk. 

• HOST (you asked for it) allows the Mod- 
II to be controlled from another terminal 
thru the RS-232 port. It does not allow 
screen formatting. 

• SPOOL saves all printer output as a disk 
file for printing at a more convenient time. 

• STATUS returns a chart showing the cur- 
rent status of DO, DEBUG, SETCOM, 
SPOOL, HOST, and 'top of user memory' 

• T sends a TOP-OF-FORM command to 
the printer. 



8 SCREEN will copy the screen to a 
printer. 

° DUAL is a routing feature that will send 
a copy of everything to a printer at the 
same time it is going to the screen. 

• HELP gives a list of all commands that 
have additional HELP available. When 
used with a command, it will show the 
options, switches and extensions that are 
to be used. 

• RECEIVE uses the RS-232 port for input 
of an INTEL HEX format file and will store 
it on disk with the proper addresses 
needed. 

• RESET is the same as pressing the reset 
switch. The advantage is that it can be 
called from BASIC. 

• MOVE is normally used with a multi- 
drive system in place of COPY It may be 
used with a 'WILD-CARD' (*) to move a 
number of files that have a common 
extension or part of the file name such as 
MOUE */BASs0 TO : 1. This would 
COPY all files from drive to drive 1 that 
have any file name ending with the exten- 
sion /BAS. 

8 PRINT will print any text file. 

° ECHO allows you to type information to 
the display without having the operating 
system interpret it as a command. With 
DUAL routing turned on, it will also send 
it to the printer. 

Other Changes 

There were changes to 15 of the 
existing Library commands. I will only 
cover the 8 commands that had signifi- 
cant changes. 

• AUTO may now be overridden by 
pressing HOLD after you enter the date 
and before you enter the time. 

• BACKUP has too many new features to 
cover here. 

• DIR now includes the last date that the 
file or program was updated and the 
number of sectors used. 

• FORMAT no longer requires a password 
or an ID. You may specify which track you 
want the directory on and whether or not 
you want an alternate directory This is the 
only way to create a TRSDOS 2.0 diskette 
that does not have an alternate directory. 



° FORMS now contains a switch that tells 
the system to ignore all printer output. 
(dummy mode) 

8 SETCOM with no parameters will now 
return the status of each channel. 

8 TERMINAL now uses the BREAK key to 
return to the main menu instead of the 
HOLD key. The HOLD key will now halt 
the display of the ram buffer. 

8 VERIFY now has a switch for DETECT 
(on/off) that forces a verification of the 
diskette ID before writing to that disk. 

Caution 

A STRONG word of caution, 
although you may convert any existing 
1.2 diskette up to the 2.0 version, you 
should NOT try to convert any existing 
RADIO SHACK application software. This 
software was written and tested on 
TRSDOS 1.2 and in some cases it con- 
tains routines that are located in memory 
areas of 1.2 that are not available to the 
program in TRSDOS 2.0. 

Also, do NOT try to use a 1 .2 diskette 
in the system at the same time you are 
using a 2.0 diskette. Your data or program 
WILL be destroyed. The ONLY exception 
is when you are converting a diskette 
from 1.2 to 2.0. If you have been using a 
1.2 operating system and remove it to use 
a program on 2.0, you MUST remove the 
1.2 diskette, press reset, then insert the 
2.0 diskette. 




BYTE 



6 






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Product Line Manager's News 



JHliJCTiM 



Let's take a look at the many differ- 
ences between the Model I and Model III. 
By now most of you have been in to see 
a Model III, or have read our ads. Hope- 
fully you already know enough about the 
Model III to realize that the Model III is not 
simply a repackaged Model I, as some 
suspected. If you go through our Model III 
Operation and BASIC Reference Manual 
(catalog number 26-2112, $5.95) or our 
Model III Disk System Owners Manual 
(catalog number 26-2111, $6.95) you are 
going to find out quickly that this is not the 
"same song, second verse." We have cer- 
tainly packaged the III in answer to many 
suggestions from you, and designed in 
some very intentional similarities to the 
Model I, but the III is much more than a 
Model I in different clothing. I'll outline the 
comparisons in price, ROM features, 
physical descriptions, TRSDOS, and Disk 
BASIC for you. If you have been at sea, 
marooned on an island or otherwise 
haven't kept in touch with your local 
Radio Shack to become familiar with the 
pricing information on the Model III, its 
general capabilities, and configuration 
choices then come in and pick up a new 
computer catalog (RSC4), because I am 
not going to repeat our ads and catalog 
information here. 

Price Comparison 

Look closely at the catalog prices for 
both Model I and Model III and you will 
find that we brought out the Model III to 
give you a real price break. For example, 
when you upgrade a Level I the charge is 
$ 150.00 for the Level II ROM and another 
$200.00 for the 16K RAM and keypad 
upgrade (plus installation). 

In the case of Model III, we give you 
the Model III BASIC ROM and 16K RAM 
for a total of only $299 (again plus instal- 
lation). A Model I owner who upgraded 
his 16K Level II system with an Expansion 
Interface (E/I — to get printer capabilities) 
spent $1148.00. The Model III with Model 
III BASIC is only $999.00 and includes the 
elements of the optional E/I of the Model 
I and more. The Model I 16K Level II that 
grew to become a two disk drive business 
system with a 16K E/I, Lower Case Kit, 
and an RS-232 came in at $2,456.50 
including installation. The Model III 32K 
disk system with two drives and an RS- 
232 cable comes in one package at 
$2,514.95. Wait a minute! That doesn't 



sound like a price advantage does it? The 
Model Ill's double density disk drives pro- 
vide approximately 31 OK of available 
storage on two drives (compared to 138K 
for two Model I disk drives) so a compa- 
rable Model I would cost $3454.50 with 
the addition of drives 3 and 4. Since we 

. . .approximately 31 OK of available 
storage on two drives . . . 

can still add two more external drives to 
the Model III (for a system total of about 
670K of available disk space) there is no 
direct price comparison to the Model III 
disk system with four drives. If you now 
begin putting a price tag on all of the addi- 
tional features of the Model III you begin 
to see that we're providing you with an 
even better price advantage. 

ROM Enhancements 

We have enhanced the BASIC ROM's 
of both Level I and Level II. In the case of 
Level I we have added LLIST and LPRINT 
for easy printing capability. The Model III 
BASIC ROM includes an extra 2K to pro- 

We have enhanced the BASIC ROMs of 
both Level I and Level II. 

vide the features I'll cover. (It does use 
258 bytes more RAM for internal use.) 
The owners manual includes a 24 page 
Technical Information Section that 
includes sample Z-80 programming and 
examples of the use of BASIC'S USR 
function for Model III BASIC ROM calls 
including System Control, Cassette I/O, 
Keyboard Input, Printer Output, RS-232 
Control and Video Display Output. A 
memory map, ROM addresses and 
important RAM addresses are also 
shown. 

Video Enhancements 

Video locations are the same but we 
have added lower case and a special char- 
acter set which includes 96 symbols for 
the greek alphabet, division, cents, a 
pointing finger for annotation, faces and 
even card suites. Obviously some of these 
are just plain fun but many are also very 
useful in business applications. A scroll 

... we have added lower case and a spe- 
cial character set which includes 96 sym- 
bols for the greek alphabet, division, 
cents, a pointing finger for annotation, 
faces and even card suites. 



protect function protects up to seven lines 
at the top of the video and is great, for 
example, in protecting column headings 
in a table. The cursor is definable and can 
be set to on, off, blinking or solid. You can 
select any character from to 255 for the. 
cursor character (this gives you ASCII 
characters, graphics symbols and even 
the special characters as possible cursor 
characters!). By the way since Model III 
produces standard ASCII characters for 
codes 32 thru 127 (unlike the Model I), it 
doesn't produce an up arrow, down 
arrow, left arrow, or right arrow on the 
video. The keyboard or software initiated 
screen print function is for printing a 
"snapshot" of what is on the screen (with 
the exception of screen graphics) and 
should reduce coding requirements in 
many new applications and offer flexibility 



. . . regarding the video, it is the same hi- 
resolution monitor you have seen on our 
Model lis. . . 

where line printer reports are already pro- 
grammed. Finally regarding the video, it is 
the same hi-resolution monitor you have 
seen on our Model lis, and it is an 
improvement over the Model I video. 

The keyboard, on the surface, looks 
the same but its circuitry and contact 
design make it virtually bounceless. The 
new keyboard repeating feature saves a 
lot of time, too. I like it better than a repeat 
key ... all keys repeat after about a 1 sec- 
ond depression. For upper and lower 
case, the keyboard default condition is 
caps. The SHIFT-0 toggles the keyboard 



. . . Model III lets you interrupt a cassette, 
line printer, or RS-232-C operation. . . 

between all caps and upper lower case. 
There is a difference in how characters are 
stored (see the Education Page for a dis- 
cussion of programming differences). 
Also, unlike Model I, the Model III lets you 
interrupt a cassette, line printer, or RS- 
232-C operation (and do it without losing 
your resident program) by holding down 
the BREAK key 

Continued on Page 12 



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Product Line Manager's News 






Happy New Year! I trust you all sur- 
vived the holidays. Here's hoping that one 
of your New Year's resolutions is to make 
it a habit to read this column every month. 
One of mine is to learn how to spell 
"peripheral." Santa was generous to 
Tandy this year. Lots of new goodies are 
turning up in the warehouse every day 
now! 

I can tell you about some of them 
now. Next month . . . watch out! 

Dust Covers 

We have dust covers for all our print- 
ers (Yes Bruce, all but QP II.) 

Media Labels 

We have added packages of blank 
labels for all our media. The diskette 
labels (26-306 pk 100 for SVWnch disks 
$1.95, 26-4908 pk 50 for 8-inch disks 
$1.95) are large with plenty of room for 
index information. The cassette labels 
(26-303 pk 100 $1.95) are suitable for 
both programs and data. The writing sur- 
face is smear resistant and the labels are 
peelable. Please remember to use a felt 
tip marker when adding information 
especially to labels affixed to diskettes. 

Organization Aids 

There are two products which 
should be of help to those of you busy at 
work developing your own software 
packages. A deluxe, brown padded three 
ring binder with a blank index card for the 
spine (26-1310 $4.95) is now available. 
You can insert your own documentation 
along with our vinyl diskette pockets (26- 
510 pk 10 for Mini-disks $7.95, 26-4907 
pk 10 for 8-inch disks $7.95) for media. 
For your tape applications you can now 
purchase a pack of two cassette trays (26- 
1311 $3.95), each holding six tapes and 
punched to fit the binder. You asked for 
'em . . . come in and buy 'em. 

New 5 1 /}" Diskettes 

Beginning this month all of the 5 l A" 
diskettes we ship will be Certified 40 Track 
diskettes. How can you tell if the Radio 
Shack diskettes you are buying are certi- 
fied for 35 or 40 tracks? Well, all of our 40 
track diskettes will come with a reinforced 
center ring. So, if the center is reinforced it 
is 40 track, otherwise it is 35 track. 

No More Glare 

Do you spend long hours staring at 
your CRT? Has your secretary asked for 
an increase in his/her eyedrop budget? 



Does glare from your overhead lights 
interfere with your galaxy scans? You, my 
friend, need Radio Shack's new Anti-glare 
Screen. It eliminates most glare and 
reflection without degrading resolution 
and it enhances contrast as well. It 
attaches easily to Model I, II and III. All this 
for only $13.95 (26-511). (It will not work 
on color monitors. Sorry about that 
Barry!) 



A glance at RSC-4, our action packed 
computer catalog, will tell you that one of 
the most proliferating line of peripherals 
(try saying that after a long day) is our 
printer family Which one is best for you? 
How can you justify that outlay of cash to 
your CPA ... or your better half? I could 
answer "read the specifications" but that 
could just add to your confusion! 

Have no fear. I have a better solution. 
Each month, I will devote a section of this 
page to a brief explanation of some ele- 
ment of printer performance. Pay atten- 
tion and you'll be able to quote "buzz" 
words with the best of the pros. And, if I 
do it right, you'll know what you're talking 
about! An informed decision about a pur- 
chase will lead to a happy and fruitful rela- 
tionship between you and your new 
printer. 

Printer Speeds 

One of the most important consid- 
erations and one of the most mis-under- 
stood is print speed. Most vendors quote 
speed as CPS — characters per second. 
This refers to "raw speed": How fast does 
the printer lay down each character. 'Nuff 
said? ... No way! There are many factors 
which can affect your printer's "through- 
put," an expression of the time it takes 
your printer to finish the task you set up 
for it. 

Lines-per-Minute 

Referring again to RSC-4 (I'm going 
to force you to get one. Grab one before 
it gets out of date!), you will notice that we 
list speed as LPM — "lines-per-minute." If 
you compare the LP II and the LP VI you 
will notice they have the same "raw 
speed" (100 CPS). (Sometimes when 
talking about R/S printers I think that I'm 



living in ancient Rome!) If you compare 
the LPM figures (SEE? . . . Buzz Words!) of 
these two machines you will find a differ- 
ent story. The LP VI prints more 13 inch 
lines per minute (33 LPM) than the LP II 
prints 8" lines (31 LPM)! Why you ask? 
. . . the answer is carriage motion. The LP 
VI is bi-directional (it prints coming and 
going) while the LP II prints in one direc- 
tion only 

Logic Seeking? 

Another factor which greatly impacts 
throughput is the "logic seeking" feature. 
This means the printer is smart.. It will not 
bother to run to the right margin of the 
paper on every line if the line is not that 
long. It simply prints up to the last char- 
acter then returns home and issues a 
"New Line" command. Our LPM figures 
are quoted for full lines printed at the nor- 
mal density. This ability is more properly 
called "short line seeking." Text comprised 
of mostly short lines will yield an amazing 
increase in throughput. A complete imple- 
mentation of a logic seeking carriage 
includes a "look ahead" feature which 
allows the mechanism to eliminate un- 
necessary motions within a single line. 
DW lis "optimizing feature" accomplishes 
this. Here is how our printers stack up in 
the LPM department. 

LP II— 31 LPM* 
LP III— 48 LPM 
LP IV— 22 LPM* 
LP V— 60 LPM 
LP VI— 33 LPM 
DW II— 19.5 LPM 
Plotter/Printer— 5 LPM* 
QP II— 120 LPM** 

*approx. 8" lines 
** 16 or 32 Characters per Inch 



Notes that loat to the 
top of My Desk: 

There is going to be a shower of new 
peripheral products from Radio Shack this 
spring. Model I owners will be especiallY 
happy 

. . . New price for LP III ribbons (26- 
1414) beginning this month — $13.95. 
The LP VI ribbon (26-1418) also has a 
new, low price — $ 1 1 .95! 

. . . Speaking of LP III, take a close 
look at the January Flyer (#333) when it 
arrives. Continued on Paee 12 



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Well, this is the second in a long line 
(hopefully) of informative articles which 
you the reader will find useful. 

To start with the bad news first: 

Personal Finance 

In the Personal Finance package for 
the Color Computer, when saving data to 
tape or reading data from tape, the instant 
the screen prints the menu of instructions, 
(ie. Insert tape, Rewind tape, Press play, 
etc.) the cassette recorder starts transport- 
ing (moving) tape if the recorder is set in 



This particular setup is a little different 
. . . and the manual doesn't say so. 

either the record or play modes. If the 
enter key is not pressed, the data will 
never be stored or read from tape, even 
though the tape is being transported. This 
particular setup is a little different from the 
way we've done things in the past and the 
manual doesn't say so. If you get inter- 
rupted for any length of time during the 
load/save procedure before you have 
pressed "ENTER," the cassette could run 
past the data on a read or run out of tape 
on a save. If this happens, just rewind the 
tape, set the recorder for the proper mode 
and hit ENTER. 

Music 

About our Music program: this is one 
of the more exciting packages that we 
offer. It lets you enter music (both treble 
and bass) note by note-, then save it, play 
it, or change it. One small warning 
though; if some of the notes you have 

This seems to be a very obscure problem, 
but just in case you turn out to be another 
J. S. Bach . . . 

entered are real high on the treble clef, 
and you change to the key of A#, and 
then you raise the whole score an octave, 
when the computer attempts to play the 
real high notes, the computer will hang 
up. (Sorry 'bout that). This seems to be a 
very obscure problem, but just in case 
you turn out to be another J. S. Bach, save 
your creations before you start experi- 
menting with them. 

Enough said about "bugs" and prob- 
lems; On to brighter (and more pleasant) 
subjects. 






Product Line Manager's News 



Extended Color BASIC 

First, our extended Color BASIC will 
not function without 1 6K of RAM. Our cat- 
alog said you'd need it for full access to 
the great new commands that are avail- 
able in Extended Color BASIC . . . turns 
out you don't have a choice. 

Videotex 

For the rest of this issue, I would like 
to talk to you about Videotex and 
CompuServe. Videotex is a general term 
referring to the sending and receiving of 
text-type data from one computer to 
another or from a central computer to a 
series of terminals via the telephone lines 
and displaying that data on a video. 



Videotex is a general term referring to the 
sending and receiving of text-type data 
. . . via the telephone lines 



CompuServe 

CompuServe is a Computer Service 
organization which can open the door to 
a wealth of information and bring it into 
your home or business. Information such 
as international, national, regional, and 
local news, weather, sports, or commen- 
tary are available at your fingertips in your 
own home. Also, family service informa- 
tion such as food recipes, nutrition, per- 
sonal health, home decorating, building, 
travel, and money management are also 
available. 

Other Services 

Within the CompuServe network are 
also available MicroQuote, supplying 
information on trading statistics and 
descriptive information updated daily on 
32,000 stocks, bonds, and options-, Elec- 
tronic Mail, which enables you to send 
and receive messages to other Compu- 
Serve members or groups of members 
across the U.S., or use the "CB"-like sim- 
ulation to "ratchet-jaw" with other infor- 
mation enthusiasts. Of course, this is just 
the "tip of the iceberg" in regard to the 
options available through CompuServe. 

Radio Shack Software 

(Now the sales pitch. . .) 

Radio Shack is offering software 
packages for each of the computers 
(except the Pocket Computer). 

1 ~* " -..-•.■-■-■ ■-■- - ■■ ■ ■ ;- J, i. . ..' '.■-■■■ -t^t-.v; '..•'.-.-■ ■_ -. •- 



your own personal ID number and secret 
password and one free (that's FREE) hour 
on the CompuServe network 

With each software package comes 
your own personal ID number and secret 
password and one free (that's FREE) hour 
on the CompuServe network. After your 
free hour is up the rates are a very reason- 
able, $5.00 per hour or roughly 8 cents a 
minute that you are "on line." (If you must 
access CompuServe through a supple- 
mental network, there is a small addi- 
tional hourly charge.) 

Required Equipment 

All that is required is a computer, a 
modem to hook up to the telephone line 
and the software. Or, if you don't have a 
computer at home or if (heaven forbid) 
you don't want a computer at home, we 
offer you a Videotex Terminal which 
requires only an unoccupied TV (we can 
fix you up there, too), and a modular tele- 
phone jack. The Terminal already contains 
the software and a direct-connect 
modem, ready to go-, for just $399.00. 
(Yes, it comes with the ID#, password, 
and that FREE hour). If you already have 
a terminal and an operating, compatible 
software package, we offer a "Dumb 
Terminal" package which gives you the 
CompuServe user guide, the ID#, pass- 
word, and (again) the FREE hour. 

Software Prices 

All the software packages sell for just 
$29.95 except for the "Dumb Terminal" 
which is only $19.95. We are also going 
to offer the CompuServe communica- 
tions software for the Apple IF- and other 
Personal Computers. 

The stock numbers for the packages 
are as follows: 
26-2220 Videotex Software for 

Model Mil $29.95 

26-2221 Videotex Software for 

Model II $29.95 

26-2222 Videotex Software for the 

Color Computer (cassette) $29.95 

26-2223 Videotex Software for 

the Apple II® $29.95 

26-2224 Videotex Dumb Terminal 

package $19.95 

26-5000 TRS-80 Videotex Terminal- 
complete except for the monitor 
(your TV or ours) and the 
telephone line $399.00 

Talk to you next month . . . 

9 




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Product Line Manager's News 






Well, here it is January 198 1 and the 
beginning of a new year ... I trust that 
you all had an enjoyable holiday and are 
looking forward to the coming year as 
much as I am. 

Reservable Keys 

This month rather than begin a 
review of our pre-programmed software 
packages, we will explore the use of the 
reservable keys and how to use the 
reserve memory in writing your 
programs. 

Referring to page 80 of your owners 
manual, you will find a short description 
of the reserve memory and on page 84 a 
description of how the 48 steps of this 
memory are actually allocated as you 
enter your reserve programs. These 48 
steps (6 bytes) of memory are over and 
above the 1424 steps of memory indi- 
cated by the MEM command when there 
is no program stored in the program/data 
memory- 
Easy Cassette 

One of the ways I use the REServe 
memory is to store the cassette com- 
mands so that when I am loading, verify- 
ing and saving programs and data (which 
I do a lot of), I don't have to repeatedly 
type in these commands. The way I put 
them in is as follows: 

First, make sure you are in the 
REServe programming mode. 

1) SHFT L (for Load) and then type 
CLOAD" and press ENTER. You will 
notice that the computer inserted a space 
between the D and the " mark, this is just 
for legibility. 

2) In the same manner, type SHFT V 
and then CLOAD?" and then ENTER. 

3) Now type SHFT S and then 
CSAVE" and then ENTER. 

Other Uses 

At this point you might also want to 
add a few BASIC statements to the 
REServe memory, which you frequently 
use in programming. I have assigned 
PRINT to the SHFT A key and PAUSE to 
the SHFT Z key picking these two keys 
strictly for their location on the keyboard. 
You might also want to add some of the 
Math functions if you are doing a lot of sci- 
entific programming. Anyway the com- 
puter will let you know when you have 



reached the limit of the 48 step memory 
by refusing to accept any more characters 
when you press the ENTER key Note that 
on page 84, neither the : following the let- 
ter of the REServe memory or any spaces 
in the display will take up room in the 
REServe memory . . . you will probably 
notice that you can't even input spaces 
unless they are enclosed in quotes as in a 
PRINT statement. 

Save it on tape 

At this point I'll assume that you've 
filled up the REServe memory with all the 
special information you want to use so 
let's store it out to a cassette so you won't 
have to go through this again if for some 
reason you have to do an "ALL RESET" or 
if you change batteries. With the computer 
still in the REServe mode, do a SHFT S 
and type in a program name such as 
RES1 and an ending quote mark. Make 
sure you have a good data tape in your 
cassette recorder set up past the leader 
and in the RECORD mode, now press 
ENTER and wait for the prompt to return. 
This will only take a few seconds. Now 
rewind the tape and put the recorder in 
the PIAY mode, press SHFT V and type 
the program name you used earlier, a 
closing quote and press ENTER. The 
computer will now VERIFY that what was 
written on tape is exactly the same as 
what is in memory and you can be sure 
you have a 100% good copy 

Neat Trick! 

A little trick that I use, since I verify 
everything that I load into the computer is 
to CSAVE the program out to the cassette 
twice in succession with a short gap (3 or 
4 counts of the tape counter) between 
programs. That way when I CLOAD the 
first copy I can immediately CLOAD? 
(Verify) the second copy without having 
to rewind the tape. This is especially 
handy if you store more than one pro- 
gram on each side of a cassette and the 
gaps of silence in between the programs 
make it easier to find a program especially 
if you have forgotten to write down the 
tape counter number. 

Cassette Functions 

You may be wondering at this point 
if the Cassette Commands function differ- 
ently in the REServe mode than they do in 
the other modes. The answer is that they 



function the same in REServe mode as in 
DEFine, RUN or PROgram modes but 
what is recorded is different. You will find 
that you can CLOAD a program in the 
DEFine mode that you CSAVEd in the 
REServe mode and vice-versa. However, 
what is loaded in will be "garbage" to the 
computer and it has no way of knowing 
what mode you saved the program in, as 
the file marker on tape to indicate a pro- 
gram versus data, is the same for all 
modes. 




GD r°H GH CE3 

I ' "■ '."""i i"" 1 ^ 1 " 11 "! f-^T*"""! f"^ 1 *! 

GD fspTi 



PESERVAELE KEVS 



DEF Mode 

Our discussion this month has cen- 
tered on using the RESERVABLE KEYS in 
the REServe memory mode. There is 
however another totally separate use for 
these RESERVABLE KEYS and that is in 
the DEFine mode. Referring to page 42 of 
your manual, you will find a short, descrip- 
tion of this use of these keys. Using these 
same keys in this mode has no effect on 

There is however another totally separate 
use for these RESERVABLE KEYS 

the programs which you entered into the 
computer in the REServe programming 
mode. Looking at the illustrations on page 
43, you can see that this is a good way to 
permit easy and direct execution of sub- 
programs within one large multi-purpose 
program. Just as an exercise, you might 
consider how you could use this feature in 
conjunction with the AREAD instruction 
(see page 69) to help you add more 
power to the programs you write. 

By-the-way we make extensive use 
of this feature in our pre-programmed 
series of tapes for the Pocket Computer. 
Until February then . . . more "Pocket" 
power to you. 



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This month's Education page is by Dennis 
Tanner. Dennis has been a programmer 
for Radio Shack's Educational Products 
Development Department since June, 
1980. He has degrees in Elementary 
Education and Reading Instruction from 
the University of Kansas. Dennis had six 
years' experience as a public school 
teacher before coming to Radio Shack. 

BASIC Programming 
Considerations: Writing programs 
for both the Model I and Model 

III: 

For BASIC programmers, there are 
some differences in a TRS-80 Level II 
Model I and a TRS-80 Model III with 
Model III BASIC. For this discussion we 
will only consider Model I keyboards 
which have not been modified for lower- 
case, and Model Ills with Model III BASIC. 

1) Less RAM Available 

The Model III has 258 fewer bytes of 
RAM available to the BASIC programmer, 
making the maximum 16K memory size 
15314 rather than 15572, as it is on the 
Model I. 

2) All Caps or Upper/Lower Case? 

The Model III has capital and lower- 
case letters available at all times. The user 
can switch back and forth between ALL 
CAPITALS (shifted or not) and CAPS/ 
LOWER CASE (lower case unshifted, cap- 
itals shifted) by pressing SHIFT 0. The 
Model I uses capital letters ail the time. 
Shifted letters on the Model I produce 
ASCII codes of the lower-case letters, but 
the letters on the screen are still capitals. 

Model I 

On the Model I this presents no 
problems for the programmer because 
the unshifted keys always produce ASCII 
codes of capital letters and the shifted 
keys always produce ASCII codes of 
lower-case letters. 

Model III 

But on the Model III, this varies 
according to whether the keyboard is in 
CAPS/L-C or ALL CAPS. When the key- 
board is in ALL CAPS, the letters and ASCII 
codes returned are capitals, whether or 
not the shift key is pressed. When the key- 
board is in CAPS/L-C, the unshifted keys 
return lower case letters and ASCII codes, 
and the shifted keys return capital letters 
and ASCII codes. 




Educational Product's News 



Programmer has Control 

Fortunately the programmer of the 
Model III can ascertain and control 
whether the keyboard is ALL CAPS or 
CAPS/L-C using BASIC statements. Mem- 
ory location 16409 is always zero when 
the keyboard is in CAPS/L-C. When the 
keyboard is in ALL CAPS, that location is 
never zero. PEEK commands can ascer- 
tain the state of the keyboard, and POKE 
commands can change it. 

Which machine? 

The procedure to make BASIC pro- 
grams usable on both the Model I and the 
Model III varies according to the types of 
codes the program uses. In all cases, the 
programmer can use another memory 
location, 293 (0125H), to determine 
whether the computer running the pro- 
gram is a Model I or a Model III. Location 
293 always contains the value 73 (49H) 
in a Model III, and it never contains the 
value 73 in a Model I. 

String Evaluation 

If a programmer uses INKEY$ or 
INPUT statements that receive letter 
codes that are evaluated as strings, the 
program should contain language to lock 
the Model III keyboard in ALL CAPS. (This 
is because the Model I computer will 
always be ALL CAPS, so the values 
received will be ALL CAPS in either case.) 
Here is a sample program that would per- 
form that operation: 

10 IF PEEK (233)=73 THEN 
P0KE1G409 »1 

20 INPUT G$ 

30 IF G$="T" THEN PRINT 
"TRY AGAIN": GOTO 10 
ELSE PRINTG$:G0T0 10 

This program should run equally 
well on both computers, since line 10 
changes the computer to the ALL CAPS 
mode only when it finds a Model III com- 
puter. Note that the program loops 
through line 10 each time, in case the user 
has pressed SHIFT between times. 

ASCII Evaluation 

If a programmer uses INKEY$ or 
INPUT statements that receive letter 
codes that are to be evaluated by their 
ASCII codes, a different procedure must 
be used. Some programs for the Model I 
allow shifted keys to be used as special 
codes. Here is an example of a Model I 
program: 



10 INPUT G$ 

20 IF ASC (G$)=11G THEN 

PRINT "THAT'S ALL": 

END ELSE PRINT G$: 

GOTO 10 

This program checks to determine if 
G$ is a SHIFT T by comparing the ASCII 
code of G$ to 116, the code for SHIFT T 

Conversion Considerations 

In converting a program like this to 
run on the Model III, the programmer 
must remember that the shifted and 
unshifted keys in the ALL CAPS mode 
return the same values, so it may not be 
feasible to use a shifted key as the special 
code. In the CAPS/L-C mode, however, 
the unshifted keys return ASCII codes for 
lower-case letters and the shifted keys 
return ASCII codes for capital letters. So 
the program can check to determine if the 
computer's a Model III. If it is, the pro- 
gram can place the computer in the CAPS/ 
L-C mode, and use the shifted (capital) 
codes for the special codes. 

The above program could be con- 
verted to one that will run on either model 
by using the following programming 
language: 
5 IF PEEK(293)=73 THEN 

F=32 ELSE F=0 
7 IF F=32 THEN POKE 

1G403 j0 
10 INPUT G$ 
20 IF ASC(G$)=11B-F THEN 

PRINT "THAT'S ALL": 

END ELSE PRINT G$ : 

GOTO 7 

In this program, the variable F has 
the value 32 when run on the Model III 
and the value when run on the Model I, 
as assigned in line 5. In line 7, the pro- 
gram sets the keyboard to CAPS/L-C if the 
computer is a Model III. Line 20 checks 
the ASCII value of G$, using the code for 
the lower case on the Model I (1 16-0 or 
116, the code for lower-case t) and the 
code for the capitals (116-32 or 84, the 
code for capital T) on the Model III. 

Note that the statement to put the 
keyboard in CAPS/L-C (Line 7) is executed 
each time the loop is run, in case the user 
has pressed SHIFT between times. 

3) Arrow Codes 

The codes for the arrows are slightly 
different on the Model III. On both 
models, the unshifted arrows return ASCII 
codes as follows: 

Continued on Page 12 



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11 



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ie biggest name In little computers' 



(TM) 



Model I/III 



(From Pa£e 7) 



Cassette I/O 

The Level I Model III loads all of our 
existing Level I cassettes at 250 baud. 

Cassette I/O speed for Model III 
BASIC is selectable, at power on, to either 
500 or 1500 baud with the default being 
1500. The 500-baud rate lets you load 
most existing Model I Level II tapes. You 
can also change the speed with a POKE 
from BASIC or the keyboard. You can 

It's a new analog cassette I/O that's more 
reliable and certainly faster. 

load a 500-baud Level II tape, and re-save 
it at 1500! It's a new analog cassette I/O 
that's more reliable and certainly faster. I 
hope everyone has the October Newslet- 
ter article on CLOAD? and the terrific TRS- 
80 BASIC Command Summary Table, as 
there is a lot of information in that News- 
letter to acquaint you with Model I/III 
BASIC Language differences. 

Printing Features 

As far as printing goes we include the 
Radio Shack parallel printer interface in all 
Model Ills (even Level I). This is an expen- 
sive extra with some popular micros as is 
the monitor, the keypad, lower case, etc. 
One of the printer control features of the 
Model III BASIC ROM is the ability to pre- 
set the maximum line length. Then if a 
line exceeds this length during printing the 
Model III will automatically insert an end 
of line or carriage return so that the rest of 
the line will be output on a new print line. 
This helps if your paper is narrower than 
the printing width of your printer or if your 

... we include the Radio Shack parallel 
printer interface in all Model Ills (even 
Level I). 

printer doesn't handle overflows well (by 
losing data or acting abnormally). If you 
have programmed your own line printer 
operation with POKEs, be aware that the 
Model I was memory mapped to location 
14312. Printer I/O for Model III is through 
port 251. Calls to the ROM LP driver are 
still the same however and, as we have 
said before, although device I/O may 
change, if you use Radio Shack docu- 
mented ROM routines you will be "O.K." 

... if you use Radio Shack documented 
ROM routines you will be "O.K.". 

Serial Communication 

If you would like to work with serial 
communications to access a network like 
CompuServe, utilize a serial printer or 
communicate with another computer as 
a terminal, the Model III allows you to 
easily develop driver programs by offering 



RAM addresses for setting baud rates, 
word lengths and other characteristics 
that match the device you are communi- 
cating with (Look Ma, no dip switches!). 
ROM subroutines then allow control of 
character send and receive. Communica- 
tions opens the door to some exciting 
things available to Model I/III owners thru 
CompuServe like Electronic Mail, C.B. 
Communication Simulation, News and 
Special Interest Information. RS-232 ini- 
tialization on the Model III is not required 
with our Videotex software package but if 
you attempt to access another service or 
network, you will appreciate the new RS- 
232 control firmware. 

I/O Routing 

Let's finish by talking about one more 
I/O capability. It's called I/O routing which 
means that a device — keyboard, video, 
printer or serial interface, can be re- 
directed to any other of these devices 
under program control. For example I/O 
routing could be used to route video out- 
put to a printer. Another example might 
be directing all printer output to the RS- 
232 channel. I/O routing will save you 
time in developing applications and con- 
tinue to be one of the many examples you 
find in your use of the Model III that point 
to its added versatility. 

Next month I will continue pointing 
out where the Model Ill's capabilities differ 
from Model I's. 

See you then . . . 



Peripherals 



(From Page 8) 



. . . Line Printer V makes its debut this 
month. It is an LP III look-alike, but with a 
faster speed (160 cps) and lower price! 
($1860) 

. . . LPC (700-2007) is the final name 
for what has been the "LP III Driver" and 
"LP/C." LPC is available free through your 
Radio Shack Store. This utility is used with 
Model I programs expecting a Centronics 
code response protocol (CCRP) printer 
(whew!) and printers that are not CCRP. 
See the November Newsletter for more 
information on LPC. 

. . . Don't forget that the New LP lis 
are 80/132 column printers. This makes 
them our lowest priced business printer. 

... If you need an extra Cassette 
Interface Cable for your Model III or Color 
Computer, they are available from 
National Parts as stock no. AW-2577. The 
suggested retail price is $4.60. ... for 
QUME printer users, a tractor-feed mech- 
anism is available as National Parts 
#AXX-5022 with a suggested retail price 
of $4 16. 00. 

That's all for this month, 'til next 
month, Happy Computing. 



^^^s^mm^i^fmism-im 



Education (From p ag e id 

^ returns 8. 
^ returns 9. 
^ returns 10. 
-*• returns 91. 

When the shift key is used, both 
models produce these codes: 

| returns 24. 
% returns 25. 

■*• returns 27. 

The shift •*► may return either a code 26, 
or no code. This is because the shift ■*- is 
used to produce control codes in some 
machines. This is true for both Model I 
and Model III. 

Printing the arrow characters on the 
screen requires different codes. On a 
Model I, the "PRINT CHR$( )" com- 
mand can be used with these codes to 
print the arrows: 

PRINT CHR$(91) produces -*. 
PRINT CHR$(92) produces ♦. 
PRINT CHR$(93) produces |. 
PRINT CHR$(94) produces ). 

On a model III, however, these 
arrow characters cannot be printed on the 
screen. The commands above return [, 
\ , ], and A respectively 

Suitable substitutes for these arrows 
may be produced, however. The follow- 
ing code will produce arrows on both the 
Model I and the Model III. 

10 IF PEEK(2335=73 THEN 

F=l ELSE F=0 
20 PRINT CHR*(91+3*F) 5 

"UP" 
30 PRINT CHR$(92-6*F) 5 

"DOWN" 
40 PRINT CHR$(93-33*F) ! 

"LEFT" 
50 PRINT CHR$(94-32*F) 5 

"RIGHT" 

In line 10, the variable F is set as a 
flag. F = on the Model I, and F = 1 on 
the Model III. 

Line 20 produces CHR$(91) or "-*-" 
on the Model I. It produces CHR$(94) or 
"A" on the Model III. 

Line 30 produces CHR$(92) or "-»-" 
on the Model I. It produces CHR$(86) or 
"V" on the Model III. 

Line 40 produces CHR$(93) or "4" 
on the Model I. It produces CHR$(60) or 
"<" on the Model III. 

Line 50 produces CHR$(94) or "|" 
on the Model I. It produces CHR$(62) or 
">" on the Model III. 

We hope that this discussion will help 
those of you who are producing pro- 
grams which must run on either a Model 
I or a Model III. The conversion tech- 
niques discussed are not difficult, but they 
must be applied consistently if a program 
is to run smoothly on either machine. 



12 



•The biggest name in little computers' 

0<s? Mr 



(TM) 



Bugs, Errors and Fixes 

The following information is pro- 
vided for your convenience. If you have 
one of these programs, you may wish to 
make the corrections yourself. If you 
make the corrections yourself, make 
them carefully to a BACKUP COPY of your 
original, check all spellings, syntax, punc- 
tuation, etc. If a program line number is 
followed immediately by ellipsis (...) 
there are no changes to the beginning of 
the line. If the ellipsis appears at the end 
of a correction it indicates that the rest of 
the program line remains unchanged. We 
will normally indicate added or changed 
material in a line by underlining the 
change. 

If you do not wish to make the cor- 
rections, contact your local Radio Shack 
store, dealer, CMR or Computer Center. 
One of these will be able to assist you in 
making these changes. 

If you wish you may also call Com- 
puter Services for assistance. 

26-1555 Model I/III Accounts 
Receivable 

There is an addendum going out 
with the Version 3.0 Accounts Receivable 
programs (700-2002). The addendum 
gives instructions on how to convert 
Model I data files to the new Model III for- 
mat. In this addendum, you are instructed 
to add a line 765. This is an error, and 
should have read that you add line 165. If 
you add this as line 765, the data will not 
convert. 

26-1556 Model I Payroll 

A new W-2 Alignment Mask, and 
updated tax tables for Arkansas, Califor- 
nia, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, 
Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Mary- 
land, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, 
Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New 
York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Caro- 
lina, Utah, Vermont, West Virginia and 
Wisconsin are available through your local 
Radio Shack store or dealer as stock num- 
ber 700-3008 for a suggested retail price 
of $19.95. 

In the Earned Income Credit version 
of Model I Payroll Version 2.0, you may 
get an "FC Error" when printing the check 
register. To correct this problem, add a line 
1026 to the "PR4RGST" program: 

At DOS type: BASIC CENTER) 

Follow the standard BASIC power-up 
sequence. 

At READY type: 
LOAD"PR4RGST" (ENTER) 

At READY type: 



!G IF 17=0 THEN El#=0s 
GOTO 1029 



Press (ENTER) 

At READY type: SAVE"PR4RGST" (ENTER) 

Please make this change to each of 
your Payroll program copies. 

26-1558 Business Mailing List 

There have been several reports that 
listings and labels printed in ZIP CODE 
order would be printed out of sequence 
after updating any zip code. The changes 
listed below should keep this problem 
from occurring. To correct a diskette on 
which this problem has already, occurred, 
you will need to make the program 
changes, then delete and re-enter any 
items which were printed out of 
sequence. Make these changes to the 
"MLS" program: 

830 PA=N1 

j_GOSUB29B0:PRINT@G4 t 
"SELECT LINE TO BE 
UPDATED--) " 5 
1090 GOSUB2050sP7=G40s 



1130 



IFCFO0THENG40 
ELSE1130 
G0SUB 1970s 
IFPAON1THEN530 ELSE 



G0SUB219I 



G0T064! 



26-1565 Microfiles 

Microfiles contains the following 
problem: 

If a file contains more than 256 rec- 
ords and you delete any record, you can- 
not add records to that file again. The one 
exception to this problem is if the record 
deleted is the last record in the file. 

On a two disk system follow this 
procedure: 

1) Place a system (TRSDOS) diskette 
which contains BASIC in drive 0. Note: 
The Microfiles diskette does not have 
BASIC. 

2) Load BASIC and enter this 
program: 

10 INPUT "READY NEXT 

DISK" 5 A$ 
20 0PEN"R" »1 f "FILES /0IR" 

30 field#i *aa AS Xl$ f 1 

AS Fi$ f 148 AS )<2$ t 1 

AC p '~ -± 

40 GET 1 ,15sLSET Fl$ = 
CHR$(4) : PUT 1*15 

50 GET 1 ?3;LSET F2$= 
"G" sPUT 1 *3 

60 CLOSES GOTO 10 

3) After you have verified the pro- 
gram, enter SAVE"MICRO/FLX" to save a 
copy of this fix program. 

4) RUN the program with your 
Microfiles diskette in drive 1 . 

5) You can make this modification to 
all copies of Microfiles by swapping to the 



next diskette at the point where "READY 
NEXT DISK" is displayed. To stop the pro- 
gram press (BREAK) when the "READY 
NEXT DISK" message is displayed. 

For a one disk system, follow steps 
1-3 above. Swap diskettes so that the 
Microfiles program diskette is in drive 0. 
Type RUN. Continue with step 5 above 
until all copies of Microfiles have been 
corrected. 

In addition to the above problem, 
there is also a problem with the Microfiles 
index for versions 2.0 and earlier. An error 
exists in the logic of the "FIND" com- 
mand. Even though the "INDEX BY" com- 
mand puts records in the proper 
sequence, they are sometimes not found 
by "FIND." The error is most likely to occur 
when there are many records with the 
same value in the field being used for an 
index, and a few of these records contain 
the value but with one or more trailing 
spaces. Due to an error in logic, this will 
sometimes cause the binary search to 
"take a wrong turn." When this occurs, a 
"DISPLAY NEXT" will usually show the 
record(s) being sought. 

The solution is to eliminate the trail- 
ing spaces. This will not only make FIND 
work correctly, but will save space in your 
data file. To check a field for trailing 
spaces, do the following (in Microfiles): 

BUILD FORMAT TEST CENTER) 
O (do NOT push enter) 
DOWN-ARROW, Y, SHIFT-RIGHT- 
ARROW (5 times), then ty pe the name of 
the field to be checked, (ENTER) . SHIFT- 
LEFT-ARROW twice, L, *, (ENTER), Y. (ENTER) 



Then type: D ALL (ENTER) 

This will cause the field to be dis- 
played for all records, each one on a new 
line. If it is correct, there will be one space 
before the asterisk. If there are trailing 
spaces, they will show up as additional 
spaces before the asterisk. Use the space 
bar to slow-up the listing if necessary. 
When you see extra spaces, push the 
ENTER key to s top the listing. Then type: 
D PREV (ENTER) if necessary to go back to 
the one with the error. When the last 
record displayed on the screen is the one 
with t he err or, type: C, the name of the 
field, (ENTER) . Now use the right-arrow to 
move the cursor over the first space that 
follows your data. Then push SHIFT- 
CLEAR. This will remove the trailing 
spaces. The cursor will jump back to the 
beginning of your da ta if yo u did it cor- 
rectly Finally push (ENTER) to store the 
corrected record. 

Type: D REST (ENTER) to review the 
rest of your records. 

Note: even if you have not had this 

problem, it is worth knowing about and 

Continued on Page 14 






13 



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^MB^M»eM^fc^'ites^gi|ffiiffi 



tadl& /hack— The biggest name In little computers' 



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Bugs, etc. 



(From Page 13) 



using SHIFT-CLEAR. Typed spaces, even 
at the end of a field are considered to be 
data and are stored in the record. 

26-1604 Model I Versafile 

In Model I Versafile, there is a sub- 
script out of range error. To keep this error 
from occurring, make the following 
changes in the "VERSA" program: 



110 CLEAR _1_3000 
120 DEFSTRA 
DEF INT L*X 



C 



E(2B0) 
K(25) 



:00) 



D t E t F 

DIM 
A(25) 



26-1705 Model I Advanced Stat, 
xiiiai. 

In some instances, frequency distri- 
butions have not correctly placed items in 
the correct categories. Change line 10 in 
the "ASAFD" program to read: 

10 CLS:DEFINTI-N: 
DEFSTRZ:N=0: J=0: 
M T = 1 s A $="######,###" ; 
DIMAC 1 1 ) 

Change line 10 in the "HISTOGRAM" 
program to read: 

10 CLSsDEFINT I-Ns 
DEFSTR Z;N=0;J=0s 
MT= 1 sfi$= "###♦#" 

Make the following additional 
changes to the "HISTOGRAM" program 
to make the range between different fre- 
quencies equal: 

1480 FI=INT(FI+KK/S*10> 
/10s 1 = 1 + 1 :L2( I )=INT 
(FI )+LX:H=L2( I ) i 
FI=L2( I ) sNEXTJ 

1485 L2( 1 )=0sF2( 1 )=0: 

1=1 sT=L2(7)/N;H=0; 
FORJ=888TO120STEP 
-192s PRINT0J t "" ; 
:PRINTUSINGA*5 H? 

1530 FORLY=40TO40-LA( I ) 
/L2(7)*37STEP-1 : 
SET (J ,LY) sNEXTLY: 
NEXTJ 

Some explanation concerning inter- 
pretation of the histogram is in order: 

1 ) Frequencies will always be whole 
numbers. That is, you cannot enter half of 
one data item into the program. 

2) When reading the histogram, 
keep in mind that the purpose is to get an 
overall picture of the frequencies of the 
items in the different intervals, and to 
compare them. 

3) Since the precision of the histo- 
gram is limited by the size and utilization 
techniques of the video display, it is a 
good idea to use results from the "Fre- 



quency Distribution" program together 
with the histogram for determining the 
exact relationships. 

26-4502 Model II Inventory 
Management 

Inventory Management, when listing 
unposted sales transactions in version 
1.0, will list 16 items and drop the 17th. 
To correct this, change line 2540 (Version 
1.0 ONLY!) in the "SALES/BAS" program 
to read: 

2540 P=P+1:NEXT:IFN+15< 

NSTHENN = N+J_e ELSEN=1 

It is possible that the number of 
items carried by Inventory Management 
will be wrong. This can happen for any of 
several reasons: 

1 ) Abnormal exit from the program. 

2) Index file damaged. 

3) When recover is run on the 1.1 
version, the system comes up with the 
wrong number of inventory items if there 
were duplicate stock numbers. The fol- 
lowing procedure will correct this problem 
for versions 1.0 and 1.1: 



At TRSDOS READY type in IMS fENTER) 

At the main menu: 

Version 1.0 Press (BREAK) 

Version 1.1 Press [CTRL] ® then (BREAK) 

When the program BREAKs (both ver- 
sions), type: 

NI = n (HUD (where n is actual 

number of items) 
CONT (ENTER! 

Now press the (R) key This causes 
the program to go into the Review/Edit 
mode. Press the (FT) key to return to the 
main menu. Check the total number of 
inventory items you assigned. 

26-4503 Model II Payroll 

In the Prepare Checks section of 
Model II Payroll there is a problem if you 
enter an employee number which is 
greater than the last employee number 
assigned. If this happens the number 
entered will be displayed on the video as 
the number of the next employee dis- 
played on the screen. Change line 510 of 
the "INPUT" program to read: 

510 IFCF05 THEN IF CFO0 
THEN 500 ELSE 
C=UAL( IN$)-E0! IF C<1 
OR OL0F(3) THEN 500 
ELSE N=C 

During preparation of checks, if a ter- 
minated employee is chosen, the system 
will display the message "TERMINATED 
<DATE>." The date displayed is the anni- 
versary date, not the termination date. To 
correct this, change line 570 of the 
"INPUT" program to read as follows: 



570 PRINT@(3 t0) »"" ! : 

IFMID$(NM$ * 131 fB) > 
"00000000"THEN PRINTR* 
" TERMINATED "5 
MID$(NM$ »J_3i »B> 5" " 
N$ELSEPRINT"" 
When preparing checks the program 
does not always round numbers properly. 
A rounding error is an error of + or - 
one cent, not several hundred dollars. To 
correct this problem, change line 820 of 
the "INPUT" program to read: 

820 E#( I )=INT(H#( I )* 

R*( I )*100*+ «5a ) /100a 
SGOTO840 
Model II Payroll only allows state tax 
ID numbers to be 13 characters. It has 
been reported that the state of Missouri 
requires 17 characters. To allow 17 char- 
acters, change line 1090 in the 
"CHNGCO" program to read: 

10S0 * * ♦ FL=30 ELSE IF 
1=5 THEN FL=17 ELSE 
FL=13 
Change the following lines in the 
"CHNGCO" program to allow the FUI rate 
to be printed with three decimal places on 
the Company Definitions Report. This 
change should be made in addition to the 
changes which allowed entry of the FUI 
rate to three decimal places (see the Octo- 
ber News for those changes): 

2200 * ♦ * sF9$= 

"### f ### > ##- " 

;F7$=LEFT$(F3$ >10 

■FB*="####" sLPRINT 
2240 * * ♦ sIFJ>0 

ANDI=5ANDK=1THEN 
LPRINTTAB(K*13+12) 5 

usingf_7*;ft#( j) ; 

ELSEIFJ>0THEN 
LFRINTTAB(K*13+12? i 
USINGF9$i FT#( J) S 

Computer Services has copies of the 
1980 W-2 Program, and a corrected page 
15 for the Payroll manual. Also available 
are new tax tables. If you do not know if 
your state's tax tables have changed, con- 
tact your local tax authority. If you know 
that your state tax tables have changed, 
contact Computer Services for the latest 
version. Revised Tax Tables are currently 
available for Arkansas, California, Colo- 
rado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, 
Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Oregon and 
South Carolina. 

In the Payroll program, if you are 
adding the address of an employee and 
the address is entered like "229 E 65 ST." 
an OVerflow error may occur. If there is 
no period after the E, the computer reads 
the data as an arithmetic value in expo- 
nential notation (229E + 65)! This error 

Continued on Page 1 5 



14 



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(TM) 



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Bugs, etc. 



(From Page 14) 



will not occur with N, S or W. To prevent 
this error from occurring, change lines 
1131 and 1132 of the "ADD" program to 
read: 

1131 IFCF>0ORIN$< 
CHR$(3)THENRETURN 
ELSEIFI=4THEN 
GO5UB2300; IFIV=0 
THE1M1130 

1132 IFI=8THENIF 

VAL( IN$) >7THEN1130 

The federal government publishes 
the "Employer's Circular E Tax Guide." 
This tax guide is a set of tables showing 
what an employee is to pay per pay 
period. This guide has tables for weekly, 
biweekly semimonthly, monthly quar- 
terly semiannual and annual pay periods. 

If there is a discrepency between the 
amount the table indicates an employee 
should pay in taxes and the amount the 
Model II indicates, be certain that a) you 
are reading the correct table, and b) that 
you have set-up the employee personal 
information correctly Also, the tables deal 
with salary RANGES. The program com- 
putes the tax based on exact earnings. 
Discrepancies of a few dollars are usually 
due to this difference in computation. 

26-4505 Model II Accounts 
Payable 

Some customers have inquired 
about an option which would allow post- 
ing of invoices without them having to 
return to the Main Menu. The purpose of 
this option is to save time by not having to 
load those large programs. If these 
changes are made, you should be aware 
that a COMPLETE posting of ALL invoices 
must be done since you will be unable to 
select invoices as you can in the normal 
posting method. Make the following 
changes to the "APINVCE/BAS" program: 

Change lines 502, 850, 860 and 
1024 as Mows: 

502 PRINT@(23 »20> >EL$ 

"> ENTER A SELECTION 
s " i :FL=1:GOSUB10: 
IFCF=1 QRCF=2 THEN 
850ELSEIFCFO0 
THEN502 

850 CLOSEs 

0PEN"0" *i »VP$: * ♦ * 

860 * * * s NEXT: CLOSE 1 

1024 , ♦ ♦ ?TAB(40) \ 
FNRV$( "N" ) 5 "EXT" 
5 TAB (55) ?FNRV$ 



ii r - ' 



) 



POST 



I NOP ICES" 

Note that in line 850 we removed the 
first part of the line, and that in 860 and 
1024 we changed only the end of the line. 



To complete these changes we need 
to add a new line: 

870 IFCF=2THEN 

RUN"APP0ST/BAS" 
ELSERUN"APS/BAS" 

Save these changes by using: 

SAVE "APINVCE/BAS" 

With these changes, pressing the 
"F2" key at the "INVOICE MAINTE- 
NANCE" menu will take you directly to 
"INVOICE POSTING." Remember that if 
you do this, you will have to use the Com- 
plete option in posting. 

In Model II Accounts Payable, a 
problem is occurring with indexing of ven- 
dors. A zero is placed in the array that 
holds the record numbers for the ven- 
dors. This causes an error code 61 to 
occur. To stop this from happening, make 
the following changes to the "APS/BAS" 
program: 

Change lines 1722 and 1726 to read: 

1722 IFW1>P1THENS1=-1 

ELSEP1=P1-1 
1726 IFW2>P2THENS2=-1 

ELSEP2=P2-1 

If you have had this error, you must 
re-index the vendor file. The following 
procedure will reconstruct the index. 
NOTE: do the following to a BACKUP 
copy of your Accounts Payable working 
diskette. Do NOT perform the procedure 
on your current work diskettes until you 
are sure the recovery procedure has cor- 
rected the problem. 



ffi^*a«mffM!iH^ 



Printer Recall 



(From Page 1) 



short circuit would not rupture the fuse 
and could cause a fire or electrical shock 
(whether the cover is open or closed). 
If you have a Qume: 

1) Pull the plug. 

2) If you have an On-site Service contract 
on the printer, call the number you 
have for service and request service for 
the printer. Mention this letter. 

3) If you have Carry-in Service, or no ser- 
vice contract you have two options: 

A. If there is a Radio Shack Computer 
Center in your area (see attached 
list for Computer Center locations): 
Call the Computer Center. They will 
be able to make arrangements 
which will allow you to bring your 
printer in and have it fixed while 
you wait. 

B. If you are not close to a Computer 
Center, take the printer to your local 
Radio Shack. They will arrange to 
have the required modification 
done as quickly as possible. 

4) There will NOT be a charge for this 
modification. 



PROCEDURE FOR RE-INDEXING APS 
(26-4505) 

1) From TRSDOS READY, type: 

BASIC -F:3 (ENTER) 

2) Type in the following program: 

20000 2N=VNsZD=VD 
20010 VN=1 sVT-0;VD = 
20020 FOR W9 = TO ZN-1 
20030 P(W9»0)=0: 

PCWS »1 )=0 
20040 NEXT W3" 
20050 FOR ZZ=1 TO ZN-1 
200S0 GET 2 ?ZZ 
20070 VV=CVI < V0$) 
20080 V$( 1 )=VF$( 1 ) 
20090 G0SUB 1700 
20100 VT=VT+1 sVN=VN+l 
20110 NEXT Z Z 
20120 IF ZD=0 THEN 1000 
20130 CLOSE 1 
20140 OPEN" I " ,1 »yp$ 
20150 FOR W9=l TO 23 
201S0 INPUT#1 »XX! 
20170 NEXT W9 
20180 FOR W9=l TO VN-1 
20190 INPUT#1 tXl »X2 
20200 IF XI >0 THEN 20280 
20210 VL=ABSCX1 ) 
20220 FOR W8=0 TO 1 
20230 FOR W7=l TO VN-1 
20240 IF P(W7*NS)=VL 

THENP(W7 »W8) = 

-VL;W7=VN-1 
20250 NEXT W7 »W8 
20280 VD = VD+1 s VT = VT~- 1 
20270 IF VD=ZD 

THEN W9=YN-I 
20280 NEXT W9 
20290 GOTO 1000 

3) Save this program using: 



S A V E " R E C V E R / A S C " * A (ENTER) 

4) Type: LOAD " APS/BAS " 
(ENTER) 

5) Typ e: M E R G E " R E C V E R / A S C " 
(ENTER) 

6) Type: RUN (ENTER) 

7) Ent er the p assword. At the Main Menu, 
press (BREAK) 

8) Type: GOTO 20000 (ENTER) 

The recovery process will be com- 
pleted and the program will return to the 
Main Menu. Press "Fl" to exit the 
program. 

26-4506 Mailing List 

A problem exists in Version 2.0 of 
the Mailing List program on TRSDOS ver- 
sion 1.2. This does not affect versions 
prior to 2.0. 

The symptoms of the problem are: 
1) After running MLSFIX, all items 
are sorted correctly however, numerous 
Continued on Page 16 



v^«^^^s%i?»CT^«^*a^.st«g?a^a3TCm»as^^m^;ft»^ 



15 



MICROCOMPUTER NEWS 
P.O. BOX 2910 

FORT WORTH, TX 76101 



BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Radio Shack 
A Div. of Tandy Corp. 



ADDRESS CHANGE 

□ Remove from List 

□ Change as shown 

Please detach address 
label and mail to 
address shown above. 



BugS, EtC. (From Page 15) 

"garbage" records appear at the end of 
the list. 

2) The number of garbage records is 
equal to the user defined maximum num- 
ber of records minus the actual number of 
records. 

This problem occurs because file 
lengths are used to "reset" the number of 
records. Since the files are now pre-allo- 
cated, records may be inserted which 
were never used. 

The solution is to make the following 
changes to MLSFIX/BAS and then redo 
the MLSFK procedure. 

Change the following lines to read: 

1050 N=0:TN=1 

1070 PRINT@( 15 ,28) t 

"Record * : " j 
1090 PRINT@( 15 *47) * 

CHR$(23) 5R$5RS3N$; 
1100 J=TNsGOSUB400; 

GOSUB410 

Add the following lines: 

1102 IF ASC(E1$)<32 OR 
ASC(E1$)>128 THEN 
RS=TX:G0T0 1110 

1104 GOSUB B50:N = N+1 : 

TN=TN+1 sEL$=El$; IW=1 

Then SAVE the changes using: 
SAOE "MLSFIX/BAS" 



JMame binder 

Have you ever created a Model I sys- 
tem tape and then forgotten the filename? 
Or perhaps a friend gave you a copy of 
her latest, greatest, creation and forgot to 
give you the file name? Well, Scott Olson 
of Decatur, Ala. has a solution. This little 
program will read the filename from a 
system tape for you. (In case you are not 
familiar with system tapes, you need a 
filename in order to load the program.) 



10 


CLS 




20 


FOR X=32700 TO 32723 


30 


READ 


A 


40 


POKE 


X »A 


50 


NEXT 




G0 


PRINT 


70 


DATA 


33 f 255 , 59 » G 


80 


DATA 


7 f 205 * 18 f 2 


90 


DATA 


205 » 150> 2* 205 


100 


DATA 


53 t 2 » 119 f 35 


110 


DATA 


5» 194 » 199 


120 


DATA 


127? 205 t 248 


130 


DATA 


l f 201 


140 


POKE 


1652G? 188 


150 


POKE 


lG527t 127 


160 


U=USR(0) 



Mr. Olson notes that the PRINT state- 
ment in line 60 is important. He also indi- 
cates that if you use this to find the file 
name for a BASIC program, the file name 
will be in the third screen or character 
position, after two graphics characters. 



Model II Patch 

The following patch is needed in the 
"TERMINAL" Utility for Model II TRSDOS 
2.0. When you are using the "G" (Get disk 
file into RAM) with a variable-length 
record file, one (1) extra byte is being 
inserted before each logical record. These 
patches will correct the problems: 
PATCH TERMINAL A=3723 

F=FE4628 C=D65620 
PATCH TERMINAL A=372A 
F=0G004E23AFB9C004C9 
C=474E230DC0E1C3F632 



COMPUTER SERVICES ADDRESS 

AND PHONE NUMBERS 

8AM to 7PM Central Time 

Computer Services 

900 Two Tandy Center 

Fort Worth, Texas 76102 

1-800-433-1679 (WATS Except Texas) 

1-800-772-5914 (WATS Inside Texas) 

1-817-390-3583 (Switchboard) 



TRS-80 Microcomputer News: © 1980 
Tandy Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas 
76102 U.S.A. All Rights Reserved 

Reproduction or use, without 
express written permission from Tandy 
Corporation of any portion of this News- 
letter is prohibited. Permission is specifi- 
cally granted to individuals to use or 
reproduce this material for their personal, 
non-commercial use. Reprint permission, 
with notice of source, is also specifically 
granted to non-profit clubs, organizations, 
education institutions, and Newsletters. 



National Computer 

/** 
v^amp 

This summer youngsters can again 
sign up for an overnight camp in Moodus, 
Connecticut, where the main activity will 
be COMPUTERS. This unique recreational 
and educational experience is directed by 
Dr. Michael Zabinski, Professor at Fairfield 
University. It is the original computer 



summer overnight camp currently 
offered in the USA. 

The 1981 National Computer Camp 
will feature two action-packed one-week 
sessions: first session July 19-24; 2nd ses- 
sion July 26-31. The campers, ages 10- 
17, will enjoy small group instruction and 
mini and microcomputers for ample 
"hands-on." Dr. Zabinski will be assisted 
by elementary and secondary school 
teachers. 



The camp is for kids of all levels of 
experience including no experience what- 
soever. In addition to computers, the 
campers will enjoy the superb recrea- 
tional facilities of the Grand View Lodge 
including swimming and volley ball. 

For further information, contact 
Michael Zabinski, Ph.D., at (203) 
795-9069, or write to Computer Camp, 
Grand View Lodge, Box 22, Moodus, 
Connecticut 06469. 



rw'' ^ T w^^"^ms^MP^m ' ' , ^T^w^ s mw ^ ^^^^^^^^W^n^^^^^ 



16